At this point the unpaired electrons can move between their two spin states.
Established in 2005 as an university spin off from TU Bergakademie - The University of Resources, Freiberg Instruments devoted the first few years to develop and test a whole family of fast, nondestructive, electrical characterization tools under production conditions, measuring parameters like minority carrier lifetime, photoconductivity and resistivity.
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Electron Spin Resonance Dating, or ESR dating, is a technique used to date newly formed materials, which Radiocarbon dating cannot, like carbonates, tooth enamel, or materials that have been previously heated like igneous rock.
Electron spin resonance dating was first introduced to the science community in 1975, when Motoji Ikeya dated a speleothem in Akiyoshi Cave, Japan.
The electron spin resonance (ESR) dating method is one of several radiation exposure methods based on radiation dosimetry such as thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and radioluminescence (RL).
All these methods use the phenomenon of common minerals acting as natural dosimeters.
A collection of paramagnetic centers, such as free radicals, is exposed to microwaves at a fixed frequency.